In a historic move that echoes the spirit of a new era, India unveiled a transformative trilogy of criminal justice laws on December 26th, 2023, bidding adieu to the long-standing British-era legal frameworks. The venerable Indian Penal Code of 1860 underwent a metamorphic evolution, emerging as the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita. Simultaneously, the antiquated Code of Criminal Procedure (1898) gracefully gave way to the progressive dawn of Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita.  Furthermore, the venerable Indian Evidence Act of 1872 gracefully stepped into the future, emerging reborn as Bharatiya Sakshya Sanhita.


In a legal twist echoing through the hallowed halls of the Indian judiciary, a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) has been artfully crafted and presented before the esteemed Supreme Court. The petitioner, none other than the tenacious advocate Vishal Tiwari, seeks not just attention but a resolute stay on the implementation of the three novel criminal code bills recently ushered in by Parliament. In a legal ballet, Tiwari's petition pirouettes through the legal sphere, contending that these legislative offspring suffer from a multitude of defects and discrepancies. However, what lends a particularly unique brushstroke to this legal canvas is the claim that these laws underwent a metamorphic evolution akin to a legislative chrysalis. The initial three bills, it is asserted, were withdrawn, only to reemerge in redrafted form, adorned with changes that escaped the scrutinizing gaze of parliamentary debate. Tiwari's legal opus contends that this maneuvering casts shadows on the transparency of the legislative process, demanding a closer inspection of the legislative cocoon from which these laws emerged. As the PIL takes center stage, the legal community watches with bated breath, for in the delicate dance between petitioner and court lies the fate of these new criminal code bills. The judicial tapestry is unfolding, and the legal arguments, like protagonists in a gripping novel, await their denouement in the chambers of the Supreme Court.



A peculiar spotlight is cast upon the genesis of the legislation. The three new bills, birthed in the parliamentary realm by the hands of Shri Amit Shah, are portrayed as emancipators, breaking free from the shackles of laws designed to fortify the British dominion. These erstwhile laws, now relegated to the annals of history, are painted as instruments of punishment, not justice. The new laws, however, wear a different cloak – one woven with the threads of Indian ethos and designed to safeguard the rights enshrined in the constitutional fabric. The soulful resonance of these new legal doctrines is to protect, not to punish, echoing the sentiments echoed by the Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi, back in 2019. The call to synchronize legislation with the contemporary zeitgeist, to metamorphose laws in the crucible of today's needs, reverberates through the corridors of legal thought. These laws, nurtured in the crucible of Indian wisdom, promise a seismic shift in the landscape of the criminal justice system. The cacophony of voices contributing to this legal magnum opus is staggering – 18 states, 6 union territories, the Supreme Court, 16 high courts, 5 judicial academicians, 23 law universities, 142 Members of Parliament, approximately 270 MLAs, and the pulse of the public have all added their unique notes to the symphony. The legal saga unfolds, each chapter penned with the ink of democracy, awaiting the verdict that will resonate through the ages.


  1. Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita Bill of 2023 emerges as a phoenix from the ashes of the erstwhile Indian Penal Code. A transformative journey unfolds as this new legal manuscript takes shape, condensing the once sprawling 511 sections into a leaner yet potent composition of 356 sections. Within this metamorphosis, 175 sections undergo a chrysalis of change, 8 new sections gracefully find their place, and 22 sections seamlessly transition into a new era.
  2. The Bharatiya Nagrik Suraksha, poised to supplant the Code of Criminal Procedure, stands as a testament to the evolving landscape of legal norms. With 533 sections, it not only reshapes the procedural framework but also casts a discerning eye on the past. Here, 160 sections undergo a metamorphic shift, 9 new sections join the legal tapestry, and 9 sections embark on a journey of replacement.
  3. In the realm of evidence, the Bharatiya Sakshya Sanhita Bill steps forth, a torchbearer of change poised to supplant the antiquated Evidence Act. Its 170 sections, a refined symphony compared to the earlier 167, embody a nuanced evolution. Here, 23 sections experience a metamorphosis, 1 new section seamlessly integrates, and replacements echo with the voices of legal transition.
Beyond the intricacies of legal transformation lies a narrative of emancipation. The assertion that these new laws scrub away the vestiges of slavery from 475 different facets unveils a deeper philosophical underpinning. Once stained with the imprints of colonial rule, these laws now stand cleansed, a testament to a nation's journey toward legal sovereignty. In this legislative saga, the dance of change is not merely procedural; it's a resounding declaration of freedom, a choreography of legal liberation, marking the dawn of a new era in Indian jurisprudence.


India unveils a legal trilogy—Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, Bharatiya Nagarik Suraksha Sanhita, and Bharatiya Sakshya Sanhita in a justice renaissance. Vishal Tiwari's PIL demands transparency in these laws crafted by Shri Amit Shah, symbolizing liberation from colonial shadows and emphasizing protection over punishment. Modi's call for synchronized laws echos in this seismic shift. The leaner Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita, evolving Bharatiya Nagrik Suraksha, and nuanced Bharatiya Sakshya Sanhita embody legal transformation and freedom from colonial constraints, shaping contemporary Indian jurisprudence. This legal anthem signifies justice and sovereignty, discarding remnants of a bygone era.


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